|Print Date:||May 18, 2013, 12:00 pm|
|Title||Botulism, Botlulinum Toxin|
|Text||The anaerobic organism Clostridium botulinum produce a potent neuromuscular toxin. This chemical irreversibly binds to the presynaptic side and reduces release (neuroexocytosis) of vescicles containing acetylcholine. This prevents nervous control of muscle contraction causing weakness and paralysis often leading to death from suffocation. A related organism, C. tetani, produces a toxin with the opposite effect "tetany" - hence the disease nickname "Tetanus" or "lockjaw".
Spores of the causative microorganism are found everywhere, but the growing conditions are relatively rigid - a non-acidic environment with low or no available oxygen.
There are two roots of disease - ingestion of the toxin already produced by the "bug"; and, food poisoning by the organism which then grows as an infection, producing the toxin internally within the local host. Proper cooking and canning can both kill the spores AND deactivate the toxin. However, sealed cans and jars are the ideal environment for the organism when prepared improperly. [Note: This is a "gas producing" organism - so the infected cans and jar lids are often "bulging".
Small amounts of "BoTox" are used for cometic purposed to reduce wrinkles. [http://www.med.umich.edu/cfcs/botox.htm]
|References:||; Accepted by jsmirnio|
|Contributor||James G. Smirniotopoulos, M.D. (Uniformed Services University)|
|Peer Reviewer||Approval is Pending|
|Record Number||: 971|
|Category:||Clinical Exam Finding or Sign|
|Location:||Brain and Neuro|
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