Tx and Followup:
The patientâ€™s TEE and cardiac catheterization confirmed sinus venous atrial septal defect with bidirectional flow (predominantly right-to-left) suggesting Eisenmengerâ€™s physiology. The right heart was moderately enlarged with right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary arterial hypertension (pulmonary arterial pressures were 60/25 mmHg). The patient underwent bovine pericardial baffle patch repair of the sinus venosus defect with re-implantation of the anomalous right pulmonary veins into the left atrium. At surgery, the interatrial defect measured almost 3cm. The right superior pulmonary vein drained anomalously into the posterior aspect of the superior cavo-atrial junction, and the right middle lobe segmental veins drained separately into the right atrium. The right inferior pulmonary vein and left pulmonary veins drained normally into the left atrium. The patient tolerated his surgery well and recovered uneventfully.
This case demonstrates the classic findings of sinus venosus atrial septal defect (ASD), a rare congenital deficiency of the superior inter-atrial septum typically associated with partially anomalous right pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) to the superior vena cava and right atrium. The sinus venosus defect typically results in a left-to-right shunt at the level of the atria. The presence of PAPVR compounds the problem with additional left-to-right shunt pathways.
Most adult cases of ASD, including sinus venosus defects, remain unrecognized until the fourth to fifth decades of life when pulmonary arterial hypertension and right-to-left shunting develops. Consequently, patients with ASD are at risk for developing atrial dysrhythmias with an inherent risk of thromboembolic complications. Sinus venosus defect may carry a worse prognosis than other forms of ASD and may need to be treated at a younger age, via medical therapy and/or surgical closure. Surgical repair of ASD, including sinus venosus defect, in patients over 40 years of age, increases long-term survival and decreases the incidence of heart failure.
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