Discussion Author(s): ENS Lisa Inverso
The most common cerebellar tumors in children are JPA (juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma) and medulloblastoma. Patients most often present with headache due to increased ICP and/or ataxia. Nausea, vomiting, cranial nerve palsies and hydrocephalus are also common findings. Cerebellar astrocytomas usually occur between the ages of 2 and 20 years. They are most often histologically benign and cystic in appearance; cystic tumors have a more favorable outcome. Treatment usually consists of surgical excision and radiation therapy. Five-year survival is close to 90% if complete surgical excision is possible.
Medulloblastomas, in contrast to astrocytomas, tend to be highly malignant. They can spread to the subarachnoid space and the ventricle and may metastasize outside the nervous system. Without treatment, medulloblastoma can cause death in just a few months after presentation. Treatment includes surgical excision plus adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Chemotherapy may delay the need for radiotherapy, which reduces the incidence of treatment-related neurotoxicity; chemotherapeutic drugs include cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cisplatin and etoposide. Five-year survival is less than that for JPA, and ranges from 44 to 55 percent with treatment. However, recent advances in combined Chemo and Rt can improve five year survival to over 80% in selected series.
CT and MRI scans are the procedures of choice for diagnosing and localizing tumors and intracranial masses and are truly revolutionizing the field of neurodiagnosis. MRI has been especially useful in diagnosing posterior fossa and spinal cord tumors. CT can be less effective because the surrounding bone may limit resolution.
Topic Details: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) :: :: Search for other Topics with Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA)
Highlight this =>[ Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) ]<= for a Popup Search Tool